#3 Battle of Mutina - 43 BC (The Octavian Chronicles)

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Dacia Traiana Dioecesis of the City of Rome Dioecesis of Italy Germania Superior and Inferior Cyrenaica and Libya Africa Proconsularis Mauretania Sitifensis Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Unlocatable Christian Communities in North Africa Ethiopia Aksum to the mid-Fourth Century Unplaced Sites Bibliography and Abbreviations From checking some of the evidence cited for the more far-ung sites, such as Volubilis, Aksum, Rewardashir, and Valarshapat, I progressed to a more systematic assembling of the material. None of the early but possible sites just named are in Europe, nor are they anywhere near the areas that many historians would consider to be the heartland of Christianity.

Many people in our century consider Christianity to be a Western religion.

Books by Patrick Parrelli

Indeed, this is the case even with some Christians who have lived their entire lives in Asia. Yet it should never be forgotten that Christianity had its beginnings in Asia among the followers of a crucied Middle-Eastern Jew from Nazareth by the name of Jesus. Biblical scholars have long noted that the native language of Jesus and his followers was Aramaic, and many early Christian works survive in the closely related Syriac language. Even when they were translated into Greek within the rst generation of Christianity, the ideas of early Christianity seemed to cultured individuals of classical antiquity, speaking Greek and Latin, to be the work of an Eastern cult.

In the introduction, I will survey some of the factors that led this Eastern cult to become one of the dominant religions of the late ancient world, but I reserve the major part of my eorts for documenting the geographical spread of the new faith. When I rst started the process of documentation, I doubted whether such a project could be completed outside of the great libraries of Europe.

I was more than pleasantly surprised to discover that the book could have been nished easily without leaving the United States. More than ninety percent of the works I needed were available in the libraries of my two almae matres, Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

A score or so of works were retrieved from other libraries in the Southeastern United States, and another dozen perhaps from the Library of Congress and elsewhere. A special debt of thanks goes to Mrs. I have also made use of the Bodleian and related libraries at Oxford and of the British Library. It remains for me to thank colleagues who have been helpful, perhaps without realizing it, along the way.

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

My colleagues in the Department of Theology at the University of Birmingham have been more than patient with my requests for books and information, especially David Parker, David Taylor, David Thomas, and Werner Ustorf. Carol Bebawi has read the text of the manuscript and has graciously allowed me to use her computer to print the entire manuscript more than once. Nathan Samwini and Catherine Smith helped to check the maps. Thanks also go to Mrs. Derksen-Janssens for drawing the maps from my sketches.

These and many others are responsible for making this book a better one.

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Any remaining shortcomings and errors in the work are, of course, my own. It would be appreciated if readers who are aware of solid evidence for Christianity before in communities not listed here would forward the appropriate references to the author. Some eight decades after Harnacks work, it seems worthwhile to survey again the evidence for the diusion of Christianity in its rst three centuries.

The material in the present study covers much the same ground as that discussed by Harnack in the fourth part of his survey and focuses on the data available for specic sites. The eective cut-o date for the study is the Council of Nicaea in , the rst of the great ecumenical councils. Downey, — Robinson, Bauer, 87— CIL, 3, Suppl. Compare Luke Hippolytus, Refutatio, 9. Perhaps a name like Harba Qadm is meant; see Harnack, Bishop Pegasius was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi.

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Areth o usa. Bishop Eustathius was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Compare Sozomen, 2. Bishop Euphrateus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. The town is also mentioned in pseudo-Clement, Homilies, Jerome, De viris inlustribus, 3, says that he had seen one of their gospel books there.

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Bishop Siricius was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Theodoret, Epistle , notes that there were about parishes under the guidance of the Bishop of Cyrrhus in his day. Le Quien, — Fedalto, Bishop Archelaeus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Bishop Maniceius was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. OEANE — Bishop Zoilus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Bishop Bassones was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. In the federation of Commagene; see OCD, Bishop Salamanus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Compare Theodoret, Ecclesiastical History, 2.

Bishop Peter was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Bishop Philoxenus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. SEG 32 : , from ca. Bishops of the city are mentioned from the time of Dionysius of Alexandria onward. Dionysius corresponded with Thelymidres; see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 6. Other bishops were Socrates, Eusebius a native of Alexandria who came to Syria initially concerning the dispute over Paul of Samosata , Anatolius also a native of Alexandria and remembered for his writings on the date of Easter , Stephen the last bishop prior to the Diocletianic persecutions and Theodotus; see 7.

Bishop Theodotus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Bishop Gerontius was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Martyrologium Hieronymianum, 2 id. Paul was later at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Talbert, map 68; compare Harnack, Perrhe, in the federation of Commagene; see OCD, Bishop Johannes is listed among the bishops of Mesopotamia at Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi.

The church was apparently planned as an addition to a large domestic structure. White, — Compare Talbert, map Bishop Basianus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi.


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In Commagene, on the West bank of the Euphrates, upstream from Zeugma. Paul, the heterodox bishop of Antioch, was originally from Samosata; see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 7. Bishop Piperius was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Seleukeia Pieria. Bishop Zenobius was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi.

Bishop Bassus was at the Council of Nicaea; see Gelzer, lxi. Possible Sites Alcheon? Compare Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 7. Harnack, , suggests CapraAwith near Bara, following Moritz. One manuscript tradition of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum mentions martyrs there on 3 non. IGLS, 2: , records a tomb consecration inscription from , evidently with the name Martha, that is possibly, but not necessarily, Christian.

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DACL, 4. Dussaud, , , , , and carte X. West of the Orontes and North of the Boquee. Dussaud, , and carte VIII. Paul need not have gone far into Arabia proper in any case to get away from the region of Damascus. Trimingham, 42, suggests that there may have been some followers of Christianity in Arabia already to assist Paul. When the Nabatean kingdom was absorbed into the Roman Empire in C. Hippolytus, Refutatio, 8. Dionysius of Alexandria, ca. Athanasius, Apologia contra Arianos, There is no evidence for Christianity in the part of Western Arabia South of Aila until much later; see Trimingham, — Harnack, , would seem to be mistaken in suggesting the Third-Century presence of Christians in Qatar Beit Qatraye on the basis of Chronicle of Arbela, text 31, trans.

Harnack, — Biblical Ezion-Geber; modern Aqaba. The city was transferred from Arabia to Palestina Salutaris ca. Thomas Parker has recently discovered what may be the remains of a church dating to ca. Bishop Sopatrus was at the Council of Nicaea; Gelzer, lxi. Biblical Bosor. Capital of the Nabatean kingdom.


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Bishop Beryllus of Bostra was a contemporary of Origen. Eusebius says Beryllus taught that Christ did not preexist in any form and that he did not have a divinity of his own. Eusebius also indicates that Christians in Bostra did not believe that the soul lived on after death, but that it died for a while to be raised at the general resurrection; Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 6. For the possibility that a Bishop Hippolytus intervened between the time of Beryllus and of Maximus, see Sartre, —; compare Harnack —3. Sartre, 99— Bishop Gennadius was at the Council of Nicaea; Gelzer, lxi.