Culture and Planning
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How teams can create an open decision-making process using A3 decision-making during design to produce value for the project. How to use pull-planning to clarify expectations and workflow in design. Why incorporating quality control throughout the design process reduces waste and provides better quality documents and built projects. Share this:. Comments Nice!
Leave a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. In Canada, planning culture has evolved from its roots influenced by town planning in Great Britain to become a values-based political process that promotes public involvement in an attempt to give agency to various groups,  although social inequalities and colonial legacies are still largely present. Today, the reclamation of Indigenous planning cultures has planning in many countries exploring how non-Indigenous and Indigenous planners can work collaboratively toward a reconciliatory, culturally-responsive, and respectful process.
Considering culture in evacuation planning and consequence management.
Planning cultures operate within the institutions of their locations. As such, planning cultures play out within the institutional spheres of society, spheres which are consistently evolving and changing in a dynamic response to cultural stimuli. Planning cultures evolved alongside processes of industrialization and the advancement of societies.
Prior to World War II , planning was considered a city beautification movement proposed by architects and politicians. It became understood that such social factors influence how urban infrastructure develops. The formative years for planning cultures were the s and s, during a global period of rebuilding after World War II. Planning cultures emerged from planning practices as the public became increasingly aware of the impacts of planning.
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During this period, planners also started to take into consideration the impacts of planning practices on the public. Efforts began to shift from building functional and aesthetic architecture, to analytical and rational development approaches for resolving issues faced by a city or region. The planning culture in many countries has shifted from a design-centric practice led by a small group of professionals to a much broader social activity involving the general public throughout the process.
Since the s, planning practices in those and other developing counties have begun to take different directions [ citation needed ]. Planning processes and results are highly subject to political influences and institutional structures, which vary significantly around the world. The process of planning involves many stakeholders, although primarily, it is overseen and approved by governments. As such, the largest influences on planning culture are the variables of: constitutional government structures unitary states , federal states , multinational states , economic structure market economies , those in transition from command economies , the pace of urban population growth, political culture involvement of civil society , role of media, competitiveness among parties, openness of political process , and the level of economic development.
In all cases, planning institutions are constantly evolving themselves to adapt to new needs and changes. One such broad shift is the embracing of market-led development, where planning institutions now facilitate market forces in an entrepreneurial fashion instead of restraining them. Planning culture in Canada is inherently value-laden, and cultural and moral values are important aspects of this practice. For example, a region could be a large area centred around an urban area, a watershed area, or as an area based on the valley section between mountains.
Combined with the regional approach to planning, the diverse and multicultural nature of the Canadian population has led to some challenges in the way that planning is conducted in Canada. Planning practice is influenced by politics, and in Canada social justice has been incorporated into progressive planning cultures since the s.
The legacy of planning in Canada as a form of social justice has permeated to planning schools, including the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of British Columbia, where agency, democratization , and sustainability are declared to be important values of the curriculum. Canada's planning culture is rife with colonial legacies and inequalities and this is not forgotten in today's planning culture. In China , planning activities and planning bureaucracies have expanded significantly in recent decades, with over 60, practicing planners in what is now a well-reputed profession.
The State Land Administration Bureau is a vertically-integrated organization with branches in every major city that oversees the allocation of land uses and coordinates major projects along with the Ministry of Construction and the Planning Bureau. This is indicative of planning culture in China, which is characterized by centralization of decision making: for example, Civic Mayors are appointed by higher levels of government.
Planning is largely seen as a responsibility of government, with little involvement from civil society.
Cultural Mapping and Planning resources | LGNSW
Citizens who take issue with planning decisions may sue the local government, file a petition, or engage in public demonstration; however, these actions are largely futile. As a result, planners have significant latitude to implement their ideas without inhibition. Relative to China, planning culture in India is characterized by jurisdictional and administrative autonomy.
The civil service in charge of planning is accountable to, yet separate from, the political sphere. Five-year national economic plans guide the direction of development and land use planning at the state and municipal level.
Arts & Culture Planning
With the quadrupling of urban populations over the past 50 years, planning is challenged to keep up with such rapid urbanization. As a result, civil society is still finding its role in balancing planning actors with increasing influence for historically marginalized groups. While planning in India is seen as a vehicle by which to organize and bring significant benefits to society, the planning culture is marred by a socio-economic disconnect between planners and the populations they serve, a highly bureaucratic administration, and the continued marginalization of vast swathes of the urban poor who often live without land rights.
In Japan , planning was a large part of the dynastic society throughout the known recent history of Japan. During successive heredity an Emperor or the appointed Shogun had the authority to provide centralized planning for the areas of the country under their control. Individual provinces would report to the authority and power of the central government. After the Meiji Restoration the government developed separated functions and planning functions largely centralized on a regional basis. During the s, local governments were empowered to begin producing urban development Master Plans to guide long-term changes in their jurisdictions.
While municipalities were still tied financially to the central government, this change in planning was seen as a major innovation, and one that created a planning culture with increased opportunities for localized public participation. In Russia , prior to the late s, planning was highly centralized and plans were not publicly available. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union , local governments were rapidly given increased planning responsibility, but did not yet have the tools and structure in place to effectively regulate land use.
Significant political, societal, and economic changes in that period of transition further complicated the challenges faced by local planning authorities. Attention was given to addressing these immediate needs, and less to the long-range planning tasks of the Soviet era. In sub-Saharan Africa , including the country of South Africa , urban growth rates remain some of the highest in the world. A severe lack of institutional capacity and financial resources characterizes the context of planning challenges in sub-Saharan states.
The planning culture is characterized by a process that focuses in the areas inhabited by urban elites, while the vast majority of urban populations live in informal and squatter settlements, which are technically illegal and beyond the official realm of planning jurisdiction.
However, local and national authorities are increasingly directing attention to such settlements, and, combined with foreign financial support, are improving basic infrastructure needs. The precarious nature of these unofficial residential lands limits the ability of residents to obtain services and raise issues with local planning administrations, further maintaining their marginalization. Enforcement of regulations, public participation, and plan execution are notably weak, while nepotism is strong, resulting in much urban development taking place outside of official planning processes.
Studies of planning culture have tended to focus on national scales for comparative analysis; however, a need has been identified to focus on the contextual factors that differentiate planning cultures at the local level. Further research is also needed to understand the underlying forces that affect the core values of planning cultures; while "planning artifacts", such as institutional planning structures, are evident and can be easily compared, intangible aspects of the "social environment" require more thorough examination.